Microcontroller projects need input. These inputs are sensors for Microcontroller projects. We use so many sensors. but we have sorted top 8 sensors for the microcontroller which can kick start your projects.
Top 8 Sensors for Microcontroller projects
Soil moisture Sensor
Ultrasonic sensor –
this sensor is a distance measuring sensor. It is ultrasonic technology. This sensor uses 5V VCC for power which is equal to the VCC of Most microcontrollers. Ultrasonic sensors have 4 I/O pins. One is VCC, another one is GND and two of them are Tx and Rx. Tx sends the Ultrasonic waves and Rx receives them. microcontroller do Measurement of the distance. The working principle is based on sonic waves travelling speed = distance/Time. Microcontroller calculates the time taken to receive the signal. Timers starts when the signal is sent from microcontroller.
As you can see in the picture there two drums which are Tx(transmitter) and Rx (receiver). Signal for this is a square wave with 10 microseconds on-off time.
Note:- This sensor is very delicate sensor voltage should not exceed more than 5.1V and don’t drop it.
Vibration Sensor –
This sensor detects vibrations. Vibration sensor is very sensitive in the detection of vibrations. This sensor has 3 pins. One is Vcc. Two is GND And third is the output signal. The output signal is high for vibration detection otherwise it is low. There is no need for specific code to make it work like in the case of ultrasonic. There is a screw. Adjusting it you can adjust the sensitivity of this sensor but I do not work that well. But it is an easy sensor to interface with anything.
Soil moisture sensor –
this sensor detects the moisture in the soil. You have two stick-like plates. These two plates are separate with some space where you Can have soil between them. If the soil has moisture in it then the circuit will close and the voltage will be shown in output pins.
But this sensor has two types of output one is digital which only shows. if moisture is there or not by giving high low output. If you want more information. then you should use analogue pin output. which varies the voltage according to the amount of moisture in the soil. But you have attached it to ADC first, we can use built-in or external ADC. This sensor uses 5V Vcc for the base model. There is a total of four pins Vcc, GND, digital output and analogue output.
Smoke sensor –
smoke detecting sensor is a bit tricky to interface with microcontroller. You need to attach it through ADC. They usually work on photodetectors. if the smoke enters the chamber. that does put some obstacles between photodetector and source. And then the detector gives output according to this. You can attach it to built-in ADC or external ADC.
Temperature sensor –
this sensor is like the thermistor. Resistance changes with temperature and that helps to determine the temperature of the substance. This sensor also needs ADC attachment to work with a microcontroller.
These sensors are cheap and used. But there are two types of this sensor. One is contact and the other one is non-contact which uses infrared waves.
PIR sensor –
PIR sensor is also known as Passive infrared sensor. Passive because it takes power to work. This sensor has 3 pins. Two of them are Vcc and GND. The last one is an output pin. This sensor needs at least 9V to work. PIR sensor can detect the moving objects or person. But it gives an output of 3.3V which sometimes is not enough to work with a microcontroller.
Flow sensor –
this sensor is bit expensive side. But it can detect flow in pipes if you join it to the pipe. This sensor is like a small hydraulic generator. There is a small fan in this sensor. This fan spins whenever water flows through this. And this spin generates power. This sensor uses 12V power. It has 3 wires to connect one of them is output.
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