Every year, natural and human-induced disasters result in infrastructural damages, monetary costs, distresses, injuries and deaths. Unfortunately, climate change is strengthening the destructive power of natural disasters. We know we can not do anything about infrastructural damages but we definitely can save the life and avoid injuries by giving warning of these disaster or calamities.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples are floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or damage property, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population’s resilience, or ability to recover and also on the infrastructure available
For this We have made a prototype of Natural calamities detection system which gives warning about Earthquake and Tornado or Cyclone. This Project has two parts in it. One in which we detect the Earthquake and second in which we detect the wind speed by which can warn people.
This Project is a combination of Microcontroller and Sensors which works together to measure the given parameters. If certain parameter is above given threshold it give output accordingly.
Used components in this projects are easily available. We hope this project will help to warn the people from disaster.
A microcontroller is a compact integrated circuit designed to govern a specific operation in an embedded system. A typical microcontroller includes a processor, memory and input/output (I/O) peripherals on a single chip.
Sometimes referred to as an embedded controller or microcontroller unit (MCU), microcontrollers are found in vehicles, robots, office machines, medical devices, mobile radio transceivers, vending machines and home appliances among other devices.
A microcontroller’s processor will vary by application. Options range from the simple 4-bit, 8-bit or 16-bit processors to more complex 32-bit or 64-bit processors. In terms of memory, microcontrollers can use random access memory (RAM), flash memory, EPROM or EEPROM. Generally, microcontrollers are designed to be readily usable without additional computing components because they are designed with sufficient onboard memory as well as offering pins for general I/O operations, so they can directly interface with sensors and other components.
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology makes this device and it is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.
- Vibration Sensor
Vibration sensor module alarm Motion sensor module vibration switch SW-420 module based on the vibration sensor SW-420 and Comparator LM393 to detect if there is any vibration that beyond the threshold. The threshold can adjust using an onboard potentiometer. When this no vibration, this module output logic LOW the signal indicates LED light, and vice versa.
If the module does not vibrate, the vibration switch was closed on state, the output of low output, the green indicator light. The product vibrates, vibration switches momentary disconnect, the output is driven high, the green light does not shine.
The output can be directly connected to the microcontroller, which to detect high and low level, so as to detect whether the environment exists vibration, play a role in the alarm.
It is useful for a variety of shocks triggering, theft alarm, smart car, an earthquake alarm, motorcycle alarm. This module when compared with a normally open pneumatic shock sensor module, shock triggered much longer can drive relay module the use of the company’s production of SW-420 normally closed type vibration sensors. comparator output signal clean wave well, driving ability, 15mA rated voltage and 3.3V-5V output: digital switching output (0 and 1) a bolt-hole for easy installation small Board PCB dimensions: 3.2cm x 1.4cm. using the wide LM393 voltage comparator.
- Do not reverse the power directions, otherwise, it is possible to burn the chip
- Signal LED light is output Low, signal LED OFF output is High
- The output level close to the input voltage.
- IR module
An infrared sensor is an electronic device, that emits in order to sense some aspects of the surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detects the motion. These types of sensors measures only infrared radiation, rather than emitting it that is called as a passive IR sensor. Usually in the infrared spectrum, all the objects radiate some form of thermal radiations. These types of radiations are invisible to our eyes, that can be detected by an infrared sensor. The emitter is simply an IR LED (Light Emitting Diode) and the detector is simply an IR photodiode which is sensitive to IR light of the same wavelength as that emitted by the IR LED. When IR light falls on the photodiode, The resistances and these output voltages, change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR light received.
An infrared sensor circuit is one of the basic and popular sensor module in an electronic device. This sensor is analogous to human’s visionary senses, which can be used to detect obstacles and it is one of the common applications in real time. This circuit comprises of the following components
- LM358 IC 2 IR transmitter and receiver pair
- Resistors of the range of kilo ohms.
- Variable resistors.
- LED (Light Emitting Diode).
In this project, the transmitter section includes an IR sensor, which transmits continuous IR rays to be received by an IR receiver module. An IR output terminal of the receiver varies depending upon its receiving of IR rays. Since this variation cannot be analyzed as such, therefore this output can be fed to a comparator circuit. Here an operational amplifier (op-amp) of LM358 is used as comparator circuit.
When the IR receiver does not receive a signal, the potential at the inverting input goes higher than that non-inverting input of the comparator IC (LM358). Thus the output of the comparator goes low, but the LED does not glow. When the IR receiver module receives signal to the potential at the inverting input goes low. Thus the output of the comparator (LM358) goes high and the LED starts glowing. Resistor R1 (100 ), R2 (10k ) and R3 (330) are used to ensure that minimum 10 mA current passes through the IR LED Devices like Photodiode and normal LEDs respectively. And Resistor VR2 (preset=5k ) is used to adjust the output terminals. Resistor VR1 (preset=10k) is used to set the sensitivity of the circuit Diagram.
- APR33A3 (Audio module)
Today’s consumers demand the best in audio/voice. They want crystal-clear sound wherever they are in whatever format they want to use. APLUS delivers the technology to enhance a listener’s audio/voice experience. The aPR33A series are powerful audio processor along with high performance audio analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). It series are a fully integrated solution offering high performance and unparalleled integration with analog input, digital processing and analog output functionality. The aPR33A series incorporates all the functionality required to perform demanding audio/voice applications.
High quality audio/voice systems with lower bill-of-material costs can be implemented with the aPR33A series because of its integrated analog data converters and full suite of quality-enhancing features such as sample-rate convertor. The aPR33A series C2.0 is specially designed for simple key trigger, user can record and playback the message averagely for 1, 2, 4 or 8 voice message(s) by switch, It is suitable in simple interface or need to limit the length of single message, e.g. toys, leave messages system, answering machine etc. Meanwhile, this mode provides the power-management system. Users can let the chip enter power-down mode when unused. It can effectively reduce electric current consuming to 15uA and increase the using time in any projects powered by batteries
The APR33 series are powerful audio processor along with high performance audio analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). APR33A series are a fully integrated solution offering high performance and unparalleled integration with analog input, digital processing and analog output functionality. An APR33A series incorporates all the functionality required to perform demanding audio/voice applications. High quality audio/voice systems with lower bill-of-material costs can be implemented with the aPR33A series because of its integrated analog data converters and full suite of quality-enhancing features such as sample-rate convertor.
APR33A3 module Circuit Diagram
APR33A3 Pin diagram
- LCD 16X2 module
LCD modules are vey commonly used in most embedded projects, the reason being its cheap price, availability and programmer friendly. Most of us would have come across these displays in our day to day life, either at PCO’s or calculators. The appearance and the pinouts have already been visualized above now let us get a bit technical.
16×2 LCD is named so because; it has 16 Columns and 2 Rows. There are a lot of combinations available like, 8×1, 8×2, 10×2, 16×1, etc. but the most used one is the 16×2 LCD. So, it will have (16×2=32) 32 characters in total and each character will be made of 5×8 Pixel Dots.
Now, we know that each character has (5×8=40) 40 Pixels and for 32 Characters we will have (32×40) 1280 Pixels. Further, the LCD should also be instructed about the Position of the Pixels. Hence it will be a hectic task to handle everything with the help of MCU, hence an Interface IC like HD44780is used, which is mounted on the backside of the LCD Module itself. The function of this IC is to get the Commands and Data from the MCU and process them to display meaningful information onto our LCD Screen. You can learn how to interface an LCD using the above mentioned links. If you are an advanced programmer and would like to create your own library for interfacing your Microcontroller with this LCD module then you have to understand the HD44780 IC is working and commands which can be found its datasheet.
The ULN2003A is an array of seven NPN Darlington transistors capable of 500 mA, 50 V output. It features common-cathode flyback diodes for switching inductive loads. It can come in PDIP, SOIC, SOP or TSSOP packaging. In the same family are ULN2002A, ULN2004A, as well as ULQ2003A and ULQ2004A, designed for different logic input levels.
The ULN2003 is known for its high-current, high-voltage capacity. The drivers can be paralleled for even higher current output. Even further, stacking one chip on top of another, both electrically and physically, has been done. Generally it can also be used for interfacing with a stepper motor, where the motor requires high ratings which cannot be provided by other interfacing devices.
- 500 mA rated collector current (single output)
- 50 V output (there is a version that supports 100 V output)
- Includes output flyback diodes
- Inputs compatible with TTL and 5-V CMOS logic
As we have seen we have two parts in this project.
- First is used to determine Earthquake :-
In this part we have used Vibration sensor which detects Vibrations. Detection of Vibrations means it gives high output on its OUT pin when it detects vibrations otherwise it is low
But we just can’t interface the vibration sensor directly to Microcontroller due to current coming through microcontroller. So have interfaced it via relay.
Code for this is basic If else statement. If input pin is high then give Earthquake output.
- Second is used to determine tornado/ higher wind speed :-
In this part we are using IR sensor which determines the Speed of wind. This instrument is known as Tachometer. We have used A rotation blades ( black color ) and add on colored tape piece. rotations of blades keep on happening so the colored portion’s rotation too. Since IR waves cant get reflected on black surface it only gets reflected when the Colored tape comes in front of the IR waves it gets reflected and IR sensor give high output.
Once high output is fed to microcontroller it starts counting for more signals for particular time interval and it is converted for rotation per min.
If we make windmill and install such theme to it is blade colors we can find wind speed.
For tornado we can just give certain threshold to RPM so microcontroller determines if the RPM is high or low and will give out if it is high.
- Now considering the output situation we have given two output
- First one is LCD which show RPM and two warning messages for Earthquake and Tornado.
- Second is Audio output which is given by the APR33A3 module.
This module needs grounding trigger so we have interfaced it with microcontroller via relay.
Natural Calamities Detector using Microcontroller Project is successfully done.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
- Vibration threshold can be setup by User
- Wind speed threshold can be setup by user
- Tachometer is contactless
- Gives output in two ways
- Measuring the RPM can have so errors
- Can be little tricky to setup the Instrument
UPGRADATIONS of PROJECT –
- Dangerous Radiation level detection
- Instead of Speaker using DAC we can put Headphone jack to this
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